Low Friction Losses and low Dynamic Energy Losses in the Engine.

In virtually all previous engines, much of the energy produced is lost to friction, vibration, and transfer of force in unwanted directions.  Nowhere is this more evident than in internal combustion and diesel engines.

In virtually all engine designs, large forces are exerted to overcome friction losses from the piston rings, and also from the diversion of forces sideways in the connecting rods and crankshafts.

In our engine, low temperatures and pressures allow the use of a rolling diaphragm, instead of rings.  This completely eliminates a huge source of friction, and also eliminates the need for lubrication of the associated parts.

Importantly, the loss of internal working fluid of the engine is thereby completely eliminated.  This maximizes the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine, and prevents cross-contamination of fluids.

Unwanted side forces are further eliminated by our use of a linear to rotary motion conversion scheme similar in concept to that employed, for instance, in old time steam locomotives.  The sliding bearings involved are high efficiency ball bearings inside hard steel wheels, running against hardened steel shafts.  These are not only very low in friction, but furthermore, by making the link rods very much longer than the connecting rods in other engines, we enormously reduce unwanted side loads by keeping the rods almost completely in the same plane as that of the motion of the piston.